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Biology Project for Class 12
Mango epicotyl grafting
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Biology -
Project report on Propagation of mango tree by grafting for +2, 12th classes
1. Introduction
2. Major verities of Mangos
3. Propagation by Grafting
4. Planting
5. Conclusion
7. Reference
1. Introduction
Mango (Mangifera indicaL) belonging to Family Anacardiaceae is the most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country.

It is a fleshy stone fruit and is native to the Indian subcontinent from where it spread all over the world. It is one of the most cultivated fruits of the tropical world.

Mangifera indica - the 'common mango' or 'Indian mango' - is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed essentially worldwide.

The mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh. Mango is often referred as "King of Fruits".

Mango occupies 22% of the total fruits, comprising of 1.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11 million tonnes. Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are having the largest area under mango each with around 25% of the total area followed by Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

India's main export destinations for mango are UAE, Kuwait and other Middle East countries with a limited quantity being shipped to European market. Although, India is the largest mango producing country, accounting about 60% of world production, the export of fresh fruit is limited to Alphonso and Dashehari varieties. India's share in the world mango market is only 15 percent. Mango accounts for 40 percent of the total fruit exports from the country.
2. Major verities of Mangos

Major verities of Indian mangoes are:
Alphonso, Bangalora, Banganpalli, Bombai, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Fernandin, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog,Langra, Mankhurd, Mulgoa, Neelam, Preyoor, Samarbehist, Chausa, Suvarnarekha, Vanaraj and Zardalu.

Recently some mango hybrids have been released for cultivation by different institutes / universities. A brief introduction to such varieties is presented below: Mallika ,Amrapali ,Mangeera ,Ratna ,Arka Aruna ,Arka Puneet ,Arka Anmol.

3. Propagation by Grafting
Mangoes can be propagated rather easily by several methods. Seeds are sometimes grown to produce new cultivars and are commonly used to produce rootstocks for improved cultivars. Seedlings are fairly easy to grow, but they may require 8 to 10 years or more to bear and the fruit may not be of desired quality unless the seedling came from a cultivar which comes true from seed.

Seedlings that do not come true often produce fruit that is small, poorly colored, with fibrous flesh and a resinous flavor. Desired cultivars are propagated intact by budding, grafting, or other vegetative means. Budded or grafted mangos will usually begin to bear within 3 to 5 years of propagation. The technique of grafting in mango was practiced in India since ancient times.

Now various methods of grafting, budding, air layering and cutting etc. are being adopted with varying degree of success in different regions of India. They are:
Inarching, veneer grafting, side grafting and epicotyl grafting are the popular methods of propagation in mango. Grafting ensures purity in variety.

Epicotyl grafting is also known as wedge grafting/ V or modified cleft grafting and it is more popular and successful.

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