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Biology Project for Class 12
Mango epicotyl grafting
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Biology -
Technique of mango epicotyl grafting is described bellow:
3.1. Arrange 6 month old mango seedling (root stock) and a young green shoot (scion) of desired verity.

Mango seedling        (2months)  

Seedling (6 months) Root stock

Young green shoot (scion)
3.2. Cut the shoot of a root stock and cut down leaves. The resulting stump should have a grey bark. Make a split (cleft) in the stump, about 2-3 cm deep.

3.3. Take a young green shoot of wanted mango cultivar, preferably 20 days old. (If cut a mango branch, new shoots will form and this can be used as scion after 20 days.)

Cut out 2/3 portion of all leaves. (To restrict over evaporation of water)
3.4. Cut the end of the shoot or scion, so it looks like a wedge. Make the side cuts of a length equal to the depth of the cleft, so the cambium layers (outer layers) of the two plants can merge. (Take care that the cambia match along at least one side, preferably both).

3.5. These cut scions are then inserted in the splitted root stock carefully and tied by the grafting polythene tape keeping about 6 inch of scion part above the joint. To maintain the smoothness at the joints (mismatch due to the difference in the diameter of stock and scion) and greater success of grafts, one side of the joints is smoothened by matching the stock and scion surface before tying the tape.

3.6. Keep it in the shade for two weeks. If it is still green after two weeks, leave it for another two weeks.
Cleft grafting technique for mango propagation using rootstock diameters of 0.5 to 1.0 cm and scions 15 cm long with all the leaves removed gives more success rate. Grafted seedlings should be kept in controlled conditions of relative humidity levels not less than 85% to ensure 100% success of graft union.

Over-watering of recently grafted plants is perhaps one of the most common faults encountered. Remember that little leaf surface remains on the stocks following grafting and water loss through transpiration is minimal.

4. Planting:
Land should be prepared by deep ploughing followed by harrowing and leveling with a gentle slope for good drainage. Spacing varies from 10 m x 10 m, in the dry zones where growth is less, to 12 m x 12 m, in heavy rainfall areas and rich soils where abundant vegetative growth occurs. New dwarf hybrids like Amrapali can be planted at closer spacing. Pits are filled with original soil mixed with 20-25 kg compost, 2.5 kg single super phosphate and 1 kg muriate of potash.

One year old healthy, straight growing grafts from reliable sources can be planted at the centre of pits along with the ball of the earth intact during rainy season in such a way that the roots are not expanded and the graft union is above the ground level. Plants should be irrigated immediately after planting. In the initial one or two years, it is advisable to provide some shade to the young plants and also stake to make them grow straight.
5. Conclusion:

The primary aim of grafting is to produce plants true to type of their parent. Other factors may include reducing disease incidence, implanting vigour or dwarfing effects and inducing earlier maturity and it usually begin to bear fruits within 3 to 5 years of propagation.

Hi-tech cultivation method for Mangos is practicing in India in selected areas and that will be the future cultivation method. The sapling with epicotyl grafting/ cleft grafting is most appropriate for hi-tech cultivation /Ultra high density mango planting and this ensures high productivity and superior quality and that lead to increased export market share.
we recognize the guidance given by Joy Zacharia and the suggestions given by Attupurathu agricultural nursery , Perumbavoor.

7. Reference:

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